英 [bend]      美 [bend]
  • vt. 使弯曲;使屈服;使致力;使朝向
  • vi. 弯曲,转弯;屈服;倾向;专心于
  • n. 弯曲
  • n. (Bend)人名;(瑞典)本德
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词源同band, 绑。因制弓箭而具弯的词义。

bend: [OE] English band, bind, bond, and bundle are closely allied: all go back to a prehistoric Germanic base *band-. The relationship in meaning was, in the case of bend, more obvious in Old English times, when bendan meant ‘tie up’ as well as ‘curve’ (a sense preserved in the modern English noun bend ‘knot’, as in carrick bend).

The rather strange-seeming meaning development appears to have come about as follows: bend in the sense ‘tie, constrain’ was used for the pulling of bow-strings, with reference to the strain or tension thereby applied to the bow; the natural consequence of this was of course that the bow curved, and hence (although not until the late 13th century) bend came to be used for ‘curve’.

=> band, bind, bond, bundle
bend (v.)
Old English bendan "to bend a bow; confine with a string, fetter," causative of bindan "to bind," from Proto-Germanic base *band- "string, band" (cognates: Old Norse benda "to join, strain, strive, bend"), from PIE root *bhendh- "to bind" (cognates: Gothic bindan, Old High German bintan, Sanskrit badhnati "binds," Lithuanian bendras "partner;" Old Persian bandaka- "subject").

Modern sense (early 14c.) is via notion of bending a bow to string it. Cognate with band, bind, and bond. Related: Bended; bent; bending.
bend (n.1)
"a bending or curving," 1590s; "thing of bent shape," c. 1600, from bend (v.). Earlier "act of drawing a bow" (mid-15c.). The bends "decompression pain" first attested 1894.
bend (n.2)
"broad diagonal band in a coat-of-arms, etc.," c. 1400, from earlier sense of "thin, flat strap for wrapping round," from Old English bend "fetter, shackle, chain," from PIE *bhendh- (see bend (v.)).
1. I rounded a bend where the trees and brush grew thickly.
2. A minority of officers were prepared to bend the rules.
3. The driver failed to negotiate a bend and ran into a tree.
4. There wasn't room to stand up and he had to bend double.
5. Do you think she's likely to bend on her attitude to Europe?


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